This sounds like your homework - is it? This a website mainly for teachers - and rule number one for teachers is not to do students homework for them
but to teach them how to do it themselves. So here are some pointers that should let you work the first three out. I've given the rules for all the underlined words/expressions in each sentence - you decide which ones are used correctly and which incorrectly in each sentence.
1. a) "Although" is used in subordinate clauses; "but" joins two main clauses.
b) "fewer" is used with plural, countable nouns - eg problems, dogs, questions
; "less" is used with uncountables - eg time, money, milk
c) "too" means "excessively" - ie it's a bad thing. For example : I'm not going out - it's too cold
; "so" means "extremely" but may be positive or negative - ie I could say It's so cold!
but also He's so kind!
Combined with a non-finite clause, "too" is followed by an infinitive - It's too cold to go out
- and "so" by that +SVC : It was so cold that we decided not to go out.
d) "top" has the basic meaning "positioned above the others". This may be literal - ie describing physical position, or figurative - ie meaning most important
2. a) In
is used with periods of time - eg In the summer/ In March
. "On" is used (amongst other things) to describe specific days : On Tuesday, on my birthday
is used (amongst other things) to describe specific times : at 5 o'clock.
b) The verb set
is unchanging between the base form, past form and past participle - ie set, set set
. The phrasal verb "set aside" means "put to one side" or "allocate/reserve for a particular purpose".
c) When describing purpose, "for" is always followed by a noun : I'm going to London for a meeting. This could be rephrased using (to + infinitive) as I'm going to London to see John.
d) The article is not usually used with names in English : eg I work for Microsoft in Germany
, not *I work for Microsoft
. However it is used when the name consists of an adjective + noun : I went to the Guggenheim Museum
when I was in the United States
3) a) Google "recognition for Herman" - can you find the preposition "for" used like this?
b) "did not come" is the negative past form. It is used for events which are completely past eg I didn't live here in 2005
. Compare that with eg the present perfect which is used for events which are both past and present - eg I've lived here for 3 years ( eg 2008 and 2009, so in the past but also 2010 so in the present)
c) "not ... until" means "not ... up to a certain time - eg We arrived on Wednesday, but John didn't join us until Friday
d) "after" can be a preposition which is followed by a noun - after lunch; after the meeting. "Afterwards" is an adverb and means "after the time just mentioned". Compare : After lunch, we went back to work. / We had lunch, and afterwards we went back to work
- ie here afterwards
= after lunch
That should allow you to work out the first three. Tell us what you think are the correct answers, and then I'll come back and explain the others (without making you work it out this time!)