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Unread Nov 5th, 2012, 06:06 am
susan53 susan53 is offline
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Default Re: The rabbit met the lion at a Christmas party

Re your second question concerning She has put the pudding in the fridge for three hours (it's much easier for other readers to find past questions and explanation if you start a new thread for each question and give it a specific title) :

No, it doesn't mean a repeated action, and the time phrase does not depend on the the verb. If it were repeated and if the time phrase did refer to the verb, it would be : She has been putting the cake in the oven for three hours. - clearly an unusual way to cook.
In this use of the present perfect ( ie past event(s) with a present result) there is a contrast in meaning between the simple and continuous. Compare :

Present perfect simple : I've cut my finger! = a single past event with a present result ( = my finger is bleeding)
Present perfect continuous : Someone has been cutting pictures out of this book! = continuous or repeated actions with a present result ( = the book is ruined)

So here the sentence is understood as : She put the cake in the oven and it's cooking at the moment. It must cook for three hours.
She has put the cake in the oven = single past action with present result (= and it's cooking at the moment) with the meaning of the time phrase being inferred to refer to the length of time of the cooking - not of the action of putting it in the oven.

This is a good example of why, although the present perfect verb form includes reference to a past event, it is actually a present tense - the focus is on what is happening at the moment - even if that is not explicitly stated in the sentence - and the past event is only the incidental cause of the present situation.

See this thread for an analysis of the present perfect simple and continuous : difference btwn been doing/ done?
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