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  #1 (permalink)  
Unread Jun 19th, 2009, 08:52 pm
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Default particularly vs. especially

Hello

Could someone tell me the difference between particularly and especially ?I looked them up in some dictionaries and found no nuances while I think there are some slight differences between them.

Thanks in advance.
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  #2 (permalink)  
Unread Jun 20th, 2009, 01:20 am
Sue
 
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Default Re: particularly vs. especially

My initial reaction was They're the same, but looking at 40 examples of each from the Cobuild corpus, there does seem to be a difference in frquency of occurrence.

Both of them are used to modify noun phrases and clauses - here, I can't see much difference :

... the number of women in technology especially Asian women ...
try using powder alone-especially as new powder formulations are light
... of the cloud to the large-scale variable, particularly temperature and motion ...
Particularly as you'd done your four years



It's with adjectives and adverbs that there seems to be a difference. Although both can be used, out of the 80 total examples there were 16/40 examples of particularly + adj/adverb and only 3/40 of especially used in this way:

A lot of fun to keep 8 to 12 year-olds especially happy this Christmas.
home improvements will go especially well.
radical ideas are particularly welcome.
He is likely to do particularly well ...


In particular, when a noun phrase was composed of adj+noun, it was noticeable that pre-modification with especially modified the whole noun phrase:
especially high-rise flats
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  #3 (permalink)  
Unread Jun 20th, 2009, 01:28 am
Sue
 
Join Date: Oct 8th, 2006
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Default Re: particularly vs. especially

My initial reaction was they're the same, but looking at 40 examples of each from the Cobuild corpus, there does seem to be a difference in frquency of occurrence.

Both of them are used to modify noun phrases and clauses - here, I can't see much difference :

... the number of women in technology especially Asian women ...
try using powder alone-especially as new powder formulations are light
... of the cloud to the large-scale variable, particularly temperature and motion ...
Particularly as you'd done your four years



It's with adjectives and adverbs that there seems to be a difference. Although both can be used, out of the 80 total examples there were 16/40 examples of particularly + adj/adverb and only 3/40 of especially used in this way:

A lot of fun to keep 8 to 12 year-olds especially happy this Christmas.
home improvements will go especially well.
radical ideas are particularly welcome.
He is likely to do particularly well ...


In particular, when a noun phrase was composed of adj+noun, it was noticeable that pre-modification with especially modified the whole noun phrase:

But flats, especially high-rise flats
... the number of women in technology especially Asian women ...


whereas particularly often just intensified the adjective :

I thought he ran a particularly promising race
... his action constituted a particularly severe form of defeatism


I think in this use especially is probably less likely - though I wouldn't want to say that it can't be used. I suspect it's probably the most important difference though.

Hope that helps.
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  #4 (permalink)  
Unread Jun 20th, 2009, 08:50 pm
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Default Re: particularly vs. especially

Hello Dear Susan

I would like to thank you so much for your great help.you have always replied the best and most enlightening and helpful answers and I really don't know how to thank you for your great helps.I wish the best for you.

Regards.
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  #5 (permalink)  
Unread Jun 21st, 2009, 01:48 am
Sue
 
Join Date: Oct 8th, 2006
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Default Re: particularly vs. especially

Thank you Majid - always pleased to help. But I'd like to thank you and everyone else for your questions - especially (or particularly!) those about "little" areas which don't get covered in the grammar books, like this one. They make me think and research and I really enjoy it. I learn as much as everyone else.
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