Apr 12th, 2011, 09:49 am
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Join Date: Oct 8th, 2006
| | Re: have and be as main / auxiliary verb
This sounds like CELTA homework, so you need to work it out for yourself, but here's an explanation which might help.
Have can be both auxiliary or main. As an auxiliary it's used to form perfect aspect - have + past participle. This can be
Present perfect eg I have lived here for three years
Past perfect : I left - I had seen enough!
Perfect infinitive : I would like to have gone./ They will have left by now.
And in combination forms (see below)
In all other cases it's the main verb. Examples -
I have an appointment at ten
I had eggs for breakfast.
I'm having a party next week.
Be can also act as both auxiliary or main. When it's auxiliary it forms ...
a) continuous aspect (be plus main verb in -ing) : I am having problems with this activity / I was hopingto talk to him tomorrow / They will be arriving soon.
b) the passive (be + past participle main verb) : Paper is made from wood pulp / He was arrested last night / It will be sent on Monday
and in combination forms (see below).
In all other cases it's the main verb: I am from London / I was there yesterday / You must be hungry.
That should give you enough information to check and complete your own answers. One of those you've given is wrong, and as a clue for the two you've omitted : able is an adjective, not a verb. Try and correct them and I'll tell you if you're right.
If you're interested it gets more more complicated than those in your examples. When be(main verb ) is in the continuous, it needs be (auxiliary) so you get eg :
You're being stupid! = You're (be =auxiliary) being (be = main verb)
The same for have in the perfect :
I've had enough! = I've (have= auxiliary) had (have= main verb)
and the auxiliary be and have can combine to make the perfect continuous, or perfect passive :
I've been working all day = Present perfect continuous : I have (have auxiliary) been (be auxiliary) working (main verb)
We've been invited to the Palace! = Present perfect passive :We have (have auxiliary) been (be auxiliary) invited (main verb)